Hello and Welcome!
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Government is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the objectives of the course in Government.

These objectives are to:
i. appreciate the meaning of government;
ii. analyse the framework and specify the institutions of government;
iii. explain the concept of citizenship and define the duties and obligations of a citizen;
iv. appreciate the process of political development;
v. evaluate the political development and problems of governance in Nigeria;
vi. assess the role of Nigeria as a member of the international community and the workings of international organizations.

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1. Basic concepts in government
a. Power, Right, Legitimacy, Authority, Sovereignty:
b. Society, State, Nation, Nation-State;
c. Political Processes
Political Socialization, Political
Participation, Political Culture.

2. Forms of Government:
Monarchy, Aristocracy, Oligarchy, Autocracy, Republic, Democracy- definitions, features, merits and demerits.

3. Arms of Government:
a. The Legislature – types, structure, functions, powers;
b. The Executive – types and functions, powers;
c. The Judiciary – functions, powers, components.

4. Structures of Governance:
Unitary, Federal, Confederal-features, reasons for adoption, merits and demerits.
5. Systems of Governance: Presidential, Parliamentary and Monarchical.

6. Political Ideologies:
Communalism, Feudalism, Capitalism,
Socialism, Fascism, Communism

7. Constitution
Written, Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible.

8. Principles of Democratic Government:
Ethics and Accountability in Public Office, Separation of Power/Checks and Balances, Individual and Collective Responsibility, Constitutionalism, Rule of Law.

9. Processes of Legislation:
Legislative Enactment – acts, edicts, delegated legislation, decrees.

10. Citizenship:
i. Meaning, types
ii. Citizenship rights;
iii. Duties and obligations of citizens.

11. The Electoral Process:
Franchise, Election, Electoral System, Electoral Commission.

UTME CBT Practice Tests
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (FREE Access)
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (Registered Users)

12. Party Systems:
i. Definition, function and types
ii. Political parties – Definition, Organization, functions.

13. Pressure Groups:
Definition, types, functions and modes of operation.

14. Public Opinion:
Meaning, functions and measurement.

15. The Civil Service:
Definition, characteristics, functions, structure, control and problems.

PART II POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
1. Pre – colonial Polities:
Sarauta, Emirate, Tiv, Igbo, Yoruba – structure/system of governance

2. Imperialist Penetration:
a. The British process of acquisition – trade, missionary activities, company rule, crown colony, protectorate;
b. The British colonial administrative policy – direct and indirect rule;
c. Impact of British colonial rule- economic, political, socio-cultural;
d. Comparison of British and French colonial administration.

3. Process of Decolonization
a. Nationalist Movements – meaning, emergence, goals, strategies, nationalist leaders – Herbert Macaulay, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Obafemi Awolowo, Ahmadu Bello and others; emergence of nationalist parties.
b. Influence of External factors;
c. Constitutional development – the Clifford (1922), Richards (1946), Macpherson (1951), Lyttelton (1954) and Independence (1960) Constitutions.

4. Post – Independence Constitutions – 1963, 1979, 1989 and 1999 – characteristics and shortcomings

5. Institutions of Government in the Post – Independence period;
The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary – structure, functions and workings

UTME CBT Practice Tests
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (FREE Access)
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (Registered Users)

6. Public Commissions Established by the 1979 and Subsequent Constitutions:
The Civil Service Commission, the Public Complaints Commission, Electoral

7. Political Parties in the Post- Independence Period:
Political parties, party politics – First, Second, Third and Fourth Republics.

8. The Structure and Workings of Nigerian Federalism:
a. Rationale for a Federal System
b. Tiers of government and their relationship
c. Creation of States – 1963, 1967, 1976, 1987, 1991, 1996;
d. Problems of Nigerian Federalism – census, revenue allocation, conflicts etc. solutions e.g. Federal character, etc.

9. Public Corporations and Parastatals
a. Definition, types, purpose and functions
b. Finance, control and problems;
c. Deregulation, privatization – objectives, features, merits and demerits;
d. Comparison between public corporations and parastatals.

10. Local Government:
a. Local government administration prior to 1976;
b. Features of local government reforms (1976, 1989) – structure, functions, finance and inter-governmental relations;
c. Traditional rulers and local governments.

11. The Military in Nigerian Politics
a. factors that led to military intervention;
b. structure of military regimes;
c. impact of military rule – political, e.g creation etc. economic, e.g SAP, etc.
d. processes of military disengagement.

UTME CBT Practice Tests
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (FREE Access)
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (Registered Users)

PART III: NIGERIA AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
1. Foreign Policy:
a. Definition, purpose, determining factors;
b. Nigerian foreign policy;
i. Relations with major powers;
ii. Relations with developing countries.

2. Relations with African Countries:
a. Africa as “centre piece” – guiding principles, implementation and implications;
b. NEPAD – origin, objectives and implications.

3. Nigeria in International Organizations
a. The United Nations;
b. The Commonwealth;
c. The Organization of African Unity;
d. The African Union;
e. The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS);
f. The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

PART IV: INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS:
1. International Organizations:
a. ECOWAS;
b. OAU, AU;
c. Commonwealth;
d. UNO;
e. OPEC;
– Origin, objectives, structure, functions, achievements, problems and prospects of these organizations.

UTME CBT Practice Tests
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (FREE Access)
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Government (Registered Users)


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