Hello and Welcome!
The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME) syllabus in Geography is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:

1. handle and interpret topographical maps, statistical data and diagrams and basic field survey;
2. demonstrate knowledge of man’s physical and human environment and how man lives and earns a living on earth surface with special reference to Nigeria and Africa;
3. show understanding of the interrelationship between man and his environment;
4. apply geographical concepts, skills and principles to solving problems.

I. PRACTICAL GEOGRAPHY
a. Scale and measurement distances, areas reduction and enlargement, directions, bearings and gradients with reference to topographical maps.
b. Map reading and interpretation; drawing of cross profiles, recognition of intervisibility, recognition and description of physical and human features and relationship as depicted on topographical maps.
c. Interpretation of statistical data; maps and diagrams
d. Elementary Surveying chain and prismatic, open and close traverse, procedure, problems, advantages and disadvantages.

II. PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY
a. The earth as a planet
i. The earth in the solar system, rotation and revolution;
ii. The shape and size of the earth
iii. Latitudes and distances, longitudes and time;
iv. The structure of the earth (internal and external).
b. Rocks
i Types and characteristics
ii Modes of formation
iii Uses of rocks
c. Landforms
i processes; earth movements (faulting, folding, earthquakes, volcanicity), erosion, transportation and deposition.
ii Modifying agents; water (surface and Underground) wind and sea waves;
iii Types of landforms associated with the Processes and agents specified above (Karst topography, plains fold mountains, faulted landforms, volcanic mountains, deltas, river terraces, barchans seifs and zeugens).
d. Water Bodies
i. Oceans and seas (world distribution, salinity and uses);
ii Ocean currents – types, distribution, causes and effects;
iii Lakes – types, distribution and uses.
e Weather and Climate
i Concept of weather and climate
ii Elements of weather and climate
iii Factors controlling weather and climate (pressure, air, mass, altitude, continentality and winds);
iv Classification of climate (Greek and Koppen).
v Major climate types (Koppen), their Characteristics and distribution.
vi Measuring and recording weather parameters and instruments used.
f. Vegetation
i Factors controlling growth of plants
ii The concept of vegetation e.g. plant communities and succession
iii Major types of vegetation, their characteristics and distribution,
iv Impact of human activities on vegetation.
g. Soils
i. Definition and properties
ii. Factors and processes of formation iii. Soil profiles
iv. Major tropical types, their characteristics, distribution and uses;
v. Impact of human activities on soils.
h. Environmental Resources;
i Types of resources (atmospheric, land, soil, Vegetation and minerals);
ii The concept of renewable and non- renewable resources;
I. Environmental interaction:
i Land ecosystem
ii Environmental balance and human interaction
j Environmental: hazards
i. Natural hazards (droughts, earth-quakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding)
ii. Man-induced (soil erosion, Deforestation, pollution, flooding Desertification)
iii. Effects, prevention and control of hazards.

III. HUMAN GEOGRAPHY
a. Population
i. World population with particular reference to the Amazon Basin, N.E. U.S.A., India, Japan and the West Coast of Southern African.
ii. Characteristics – birth and death rates, ages/sex structure.
iii. Factors and patterns of population distribution;
iv . Factors and problems of population growth;
b. Settlement with particular reference to Western Europe, Middle East and West Africa;
i. Types and patterns: Rural and Urban, Dispersed, nucleated and linear;
ii. Rural settlement: classification, factors of growth and functions;
iii. Urban settlement – classification, factors for growth and functions.
iv. Problems of urban centres
v. Interrelationship between rural and urban settlements.
c. Selected economic activities
i. Types of economic activities: primary, secondary and tertiary;
ii. Manufacturing industries, types, locational factors, distribution and socio- economic importance and problems of industrialization in tropical Africa.
iii. Transportation and Communication types, roles in economic development and communication in tropical Africa.
iv. World trade-factors and pattern of world trade, major commodities (origin, routes and destinations).

IV. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
A. Nigeria
a Broad outline
i. Location, position, size, political division – (states) and peoples;
ii Physical settling: geology, relief, landform, climate and drainage, vegetation and soils;
iii Population: size, distribution, migration, (types, problems and effects);
iv Natural Resources: types (minerals, soils, Water, vegetation etc) distribution, uses and Conservation;
v. Agricultural Systems: the major crops produced, problems of agricultural development in Nigeria.
vi. Manufacturing Industries: factors of location, types of products, marketing and problems associated with manufacturing;
vii. Transportation and trade: modes of transportation and their relative advantages and disadvantages, regional and international trade.
b. Geographical Regions of Nigeria
i Eastern Highlands;
ii Eastern Scarpland;
iii Northern Central Highland
iv Western Highlands;
v Sokoto Plains;
vi. Niger-Benue trough;
vii. Cross River Basin;
viii Southern Coastland each region analysed under the following sub- headings: physical setting (relief, drainage etc) people, population and settlements, modes of exploitation of natural resources, transportation and problems of development.

B. The Rest of Africa:
a Africa on broad outline;
i Location, size, position, political settings (relief, drainage, climate type, Vegetation type etc).
ii. Distribution of major minerals
b Selected Topics
i Lumbering in equatorial Africa with particular reference to Cote d’voire (Ivory Coast) and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
ii Irrigation Agriculture in the Nile andNiger Basin;
iii Plantation Agriculture in West and East Africa
iv Fruit Farming in the Mediterranean Regions of Africa.
v Mineral Exploitation
– Gold mining in South Africa
– Copper mining in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
– Crude oil production in Algeria and Libya
vi Population Distribution in West Africa
vii International Economic Cooperation in West Africa, e.g. ECOWAS


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