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UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
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The aim of the Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination syllabus in Agriculture is to prepare the candidates for the Board’s examination. It is designed to test their achievement of the course objectives, which are to:
1. stimulate and sustain their interest in Agriculture;
2. acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture;
3. acquire the knowledge of interpretation and the use of data;
4. stimulate their ability to make deductions using the acquired knowledge in Agriculture

UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
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The syllabus is divided into five sections as given below:
A. General Agriculture
B. Agronomy
C. Animal Production
D. Agricultural Economics and Extension
E. Agricultural Technology

A. General Agriculture – Topics to be covered under General Agriculture are:
1. Meaning and Scope of Agriculture
a. Definition of Agriculture
b. Branches of Agriculture

2. Importance of Agriculture
Examples:. provision of raw materials, employment and rural development, e.t.c.

3. Agricultural Ecology
a. Ecological zones of West Africa
b. Agricultural products of each ecological zone
c. Environmental factors and their effects on crop and livestock production

4. Genetics
a. First and second laws of Mendel
b. Cell division
c. Dominance and recessiveness

5. Farm Inputs
e.g. planting materials, agrochemicals, e.t.c.

6. History of Agricultural Development in West Africa
a. Agricultural systems e.g. shifting cultivation, subsistence farming e.t.c
b. Evolution of national research institutes e.g. NCRI, IAR, IAR&T, CRIN, NIFOR, FRIN, RRI, NRCRI, NIHORT, LCRI, e.t.c. and international research institutes e.g. IITA, ILRI, ICRISAT, WARDA e.t.c., leading to increased application of science to the development of agriculture.
c. Agricultural Development Projects (ADPs) e.g. RTEP, FERDAMA programmes
d. National agricultural programmes such as OFN, NAFPP, NALDA, Green Revolution, NCRPs, NARP, Project Coordinating Unit (PCU) e.t.c
e. Roles of NGOs in agricultural development

7. Role of Government in Agricultural Development
a. Development of fiscal policies favourable to agricultural production e.g. import duties, ban on importation, e.t.c.
b. Government programmes aimed at agricultural development e.g. subsidies, credit facilities, e.t.c.
c. Provision of infrastructures e.g. transport systems, communication systems, e.t.c.

UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
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B. Agronomy – Topics Covered Under Agronomy are:
1. Rocks and Soil formation

a. Factors affecting rock weathering and soil formation
i. Soil profile
ii. Soil texture and structure
iii. Soil acidity and alkalinity

2. Soil Water and Soil Conservation
a. Soil water: its importance, sources, movement, management and conservation
b. Soil conservation, leaching, erosion, importance, causes, prevention and control, cropping, burning, oxidation of organic matter and their effects on plant nutrients in the soil
c. Irrigation and drainage methods

3. Soil Fertility
a. Macro and micro-nutrients and their roles in plant nutrition: Carbon and Nitrogen cycles
b. The living population of the soil (flora and fauna) and their roles in soil fertility
c. Maintenance of soil fertility: Methods of maintaining soil fertility e.g. use of cover crops, application of organic manures e.t.c.
d. Nutrient deficiency symptoms e.g. chlorosis, sickle leaves, stunting, apical necrosis e.t.c.

4. Land Preparation and Soil Tillage
a. Principles and practices of land preparation and soil tillage
b. Factors affecting choice of tillage methods: Zero tillage, minimum tillage, e.t.c.

5. Plant Forms and functions
a. Parts of monocot and dicot plants and their functions
b. The anatomy and morphology of the storage organs of the common crop plants

6. Growth, Development and Reproduction
a. Gametogenesis
b. Pollination
c. Fertilization
d. Embryo formation and development

7. Plant Propagation and Methods
a. Sexual: the use of seeds, seed viability, viability test, seed rate and seed germination
b. Asexual (vegetative propagation) e.g. cutting, budding, grafting, layering, e.t.c.
c. Nursery and nursery management

8. Cropping Systems, Planting Patterns and Plant Densities
a. Cropping systems: Monocropping, mixed-multiple-, inter-, relay-, strip- and rotational cropping
b. Planting patterns: Broadcasting, row spacing and drilling
c. Plant densities: single, double and multiple stands

9. Crop Husbandry
Common and scientific names, gross morphology, anatomy of storage organs, methods of propagation, husbandry practices, harvesting, processing and storage, common diseases and pests, economic importance of the following groups of crops.
Group 1: Cereals – maize, guinea corn, rice
Group 2: Legumes – cowpea, groundnut, soyabean
Group 3: Tubers – yam, cassava, sweet potatoes
Group 4: Vegetables and Spices – tomatoes, egg plant, pepper, onion, okro, cabbage, amaranthus sp.
Group 5: Fruits – citrus, pineapple, pawpaw
Group 6: Beverages – cocoa, kola, coffee
Group 7: Oils – oil palm, coconut, shearbutter
Group 8: Latex – para rubber
Group 9: Fibres – jute, cotton, sisal hemp
Group 10: Sugars – sugarcane, beet

10. Pasture and Forage Crops
a. Study of gross morphology, methods of propagation and husbandry of common grasses and legumes, and establishment, maintenance, conservation and uses of pastures
b. Study of natural grasslands and their distribution in West Africa
c. Range management

11. Floriculture
Establishment, maintenance and uses of ornamental trees, shrubs and flowers

12. Weeds
a. Gross morphology, methods of reproduction, dispersal and control of weeds
b. Weed control methods – weeding, mulching, cover cropping, tillage, herbicides and trap cropping

13. Crop Diseases
Identification of disease–causing organisms both in store and in the field.
A simple account of diseases caused by fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses; the nature of the damage, methods of transmission and common methods of control

14. Crop pests
a. General account of pests of agricultural plants both in the field and in the store, their types, importance, principles and methods of prevention and control
b. Life cycles of: biting insects e.g. grasshopper; boring insects e.g. weevils; sucking insects e.g. aphids and cotton strainer.
c. Common pesticides and their side effects

15. Forest management (Silviculture)
a. Importance: Source of wood, pulp, fibre and other forest products
b. Conservation: regulation, exploitation, regeneration, afforestation, agro-forestry and taungya system

16. Crop improvement
Methods of crop improvement e.g. introduction, selection, crossing, quarantine e.t.c.

UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
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C. Animal Production – Topics covered under Animal Production are:
1. Forms and classification of major animals in West Africa
a. Species, breeds and distribution
b. External features of cattle, sheep, goat, pigs, rabbits and poultry

2. General terminology in animal production
Common terms used in animal husbandry, e.g. calving, kidding, castrate, capon, veal, mutton, e.t.c.

3. Anatomy and physiology of farm animals
a. Functions of tissues and organs of farm animals
b. Animal body systems e.g. digestive (ruminants and non-ruminants), reproductive, respiratory, urinary (excretory) and nervous systems.

4. Reproduction in farm animals
a. Gametogenesis, oestrus cycle, signs of heat and heat periods, secondary sexual characters, gestation periods, parturition and the role of hormones in reproduction.
b. Development, nourishment and birth of young, mammary glands and lactation in farm animals.
c. Egg formation and incubation in poultry.

5. Animal nutrition
a. Feed nutrients and functions
b. Feeds and feeding: Simple ration formulation – balanced ration, common pasture/forage crops e.g. guinea grass, elephant grass, giant star grass. Andropogon sp, Calopogonium sp. Hay and silage preparation, different types of rations, namely maintenance ration and production ration.
c. Nutrient deficiencies: Causes and symptoms of malnutrition and their correction in farm animals.

6. Livestock management
Housing, feeding, sanitation and veterinary care of ruminants, pigs, rabbits and poultry under intensive, semi- intensive and extensive systems of management from birth to slaughter.

7. Animal Health
a. Animal diseases (pathology)
i. Environmental factors predisposing animals to diseases; casual organisms, symptoms, transmission and effects.
ii. Preventive and curative methods for diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
b. Parasites (parasitology)
i. Life cycles and economic importance of livestock parasites e.g. endoparasites, ectoparasites and disease vectors.
ii. Prevention and control
– diping
– spraying
– deworming
– sanitation

8. Fisheries and Wildlife
a. Fish culture systems; Common types of fishes e. g Tilapia, Catfish, etc.
i. Extensive systems: inland and deep sea fishing, lakes and rivers.
ii. Semi-intensive systems: dams iii. Intensive systems: fish ponds
iii. Factors to consider in ponds establishment and pond management e.g. pond fertilization, liming and silting.
b. Fish harvesting and processing methods
i. Use of drag nets, hook and line, etc.
ii. Curing, sun-drying and smoking.
iii. Fishery regulations c. Wildlife management
iv. Habit conservation, feeding, domestication, harvesting, processing and wildlife regulations.

9. Animal Improvement
Methods of animals improvement e. g. introduction, breeding, quarantine and selection: Breeding systems – inbreeding, line-breeding, cross-breeding, artificial insemination

UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
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D. Agricultural Economics and Extension – Topics covered under Agricultural Economics and Extension are:
1.Factors of Agriculture

a. Land
b. Labour
c. Capital
d. Management

2. Basic Economic Principles
a. Demand and Supply
b. Production function: Input/input, Output/output Input/output relationships; stages of production, concepts of diminishing returns, scale of preference and choice.

3. Characteristic Features of Agricultural Production
Smallness of farm holdings: biological limits of farm production and susceptibility of farm production to climate, seasonality of farm productions, price elasticity in demand and supply of agricultural produce.

4. Labour Management
a. Labour relations: Supervision, etc.
b. Types of labour: Permanent labour etc. c. National labour laws and regulations.

5. Farm Management
a. Qualities, functions and problems of farm manager.
b. Records and record-keeping: Types and importance of record-keeping – livestock records, profit and loss account book.
c. Stock evaluation, gross and net profits in farm management.

6. Marketing of Agricultural Produce
a. Importance of Marketing.
b. Marketing channels.
c. Characteristic features of agricultural product affecting their marketing.

7. Agricultural Extension
a. Meaning and importance.
b. The role of Agricultural Development programmes, universities, research institutes and farmers’ organizations (Cooperative societies).
c. Extension methods including demonstration plots, use of visual aids, mass media, etc.
d. Problems of agricultural extension in West Africa and possible solutions.

E. Agricultural Technology – Topics covered under Agricultural Technology are:
1. Surveying and farmstead Planning
a. Meaning and importance
b. Common surveying equipment, their uses and care
c. Common survey methods
d. Principles of farmstead outlay.

2. Simple farm tools
Candidates should be able to:
i. identify simple farm tools;
ii. use and maintain farm tools;
iii. compare the advantages and disadvantages of simple farm tools.

3. Farm Machinery
a. Types e.g. ploughs, harrows, etc
b. Uses and maintenance of farm machinery

4. Mechanization and sources of farm power
a. Sources of farm power: e. g. animal and machines
b. Advantages and disadvantages of mechanization of agriculture
c. Problems and prospects of mechanized agriculture in West Africa

5. Processing and storage
a. Processing: traditional and modern methods of food processing e.g. gari, rice and groundnut processing, etc.b. Storage

6. Introduction to biotechnology
Basic terms, e.g. tissue, culture, and anther culture and genetic engineering

7. Computers in Agriculture
a. Features of computers
b. Uses of computers in agriculture: disease and weather forecasting, ration formulation, database and simulation studies, etc.

8. Introduction to agricultural research and statistics
a. Basic concepts in agricultural experiments
b. Interpretation of results, e.g. measures of central tendency and experimental errors.

UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture (FREE Access) – Click Here!
UTME CBT Practice Tests – Agriculture (Registered Users) – Click Here!



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